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Hong Kong Geography
 
 
 

General

Hong Kong is located on China's south coast, 60 km (37 mi) east of Macau on the opposite side of the Pearl River Delta. It is surrounded by the South China Sea on the east, south and west, and borders the Guangdong city of Shenzhen to the north over the Shenzhen River. The territory's 1,104 km² (426 mi²) area consists of Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon Peninsula, the New Territories, and over 200 offshore islands, of which the largest is Lantau Island. Of the total area, 1,054 km² (407 mi²) is land and 50 km² (19 mi²) is inland water. Hong Kong claims territorial waters to a distance of 3 nautical miles (5.6 km). Comparatively Hong Kong is three times the size of Grenada or six times larger than Washington DC.

As much of Hong Kong's terrain is hilly to mountainous with steep slopes, less than 25% of the territory's landmass is developed, and about 40% of the remaining land area is reserved as country parks and nature reserves. Most of the territory's urban development exists on Kowloon peninsula, along the northern edge of Hong Kong Island, and in scattered settlements throughout the New Territories. The highest elevation in the territory is at Tai Mo Shan, 957 metres (3,140 ft) above sea level. Hong Kong's long and irregular coast provides it with many bays, rivers and beaches. On September 18, 2011, UNESCO listed the Hong Kong National Geopark as part of its Global Geoparks Network. Hong Kong Geopark is made up of eight Geo-Areas distributed across the Sai Kung Volcanic Rock Region and Northeast New Territories Sedimentary Rock Region.

Despite Hong Kong's reputation of being intensely urbanised, the territory has tried to promote a green environment, and recent growing public concern has prompted the severe restriction of further land reclamation from Victoria Harbour. Awareness of the environment is growing as Hong Kong suffers from increasing pollution compounded by its geography and tall buildings. Approximately 80% of the city's smog originates from other parts of the Pearl River Delta.

Though it is situated just south of the Tropic of Cancer, Hong Kong has a humid subtropical climate. Summer is hot and humid with occasional showers and thunderstorms, and warm air coming from the southwest. Summer is when typhoons are most likely, sometimes resulting in flooding or landslides. Winters are mild and usually start sunny, becoming cloudier towards February; the occasional cold front brings strong, cooling winds from the north. The most temperate seasons are spring, which can be changeable, and autumn, which is generally sunny and dry. Hong Kong averages 1,948 hours of sunshine per year, while the highest and lowest ever recorded temperatures at the Hong Kong Observatory are 36.1°C (97°F) and 0°C (32°F), respectively.

Overview

Location : Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China
Geographic coordinates : 22 15 N, 114 10 E
Map references

: Southeast Asia
Area

: total: 1,104 sq km
land: 1,054 sq km
water: 50 sq km
Area - comparative : three times the size of Grenada or six times the size of Washington DC
Land boundaries : total: 30 km
regional border: China 30 km
Coastline : 733 km
Maritime claims
: territorial sea: 3 nm
Climate : subtropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall
Terrain : hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north
Elevation extremes
: lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Tai Mo Shan 958 m
Natural resources

: outstanding deep water harbour, feldspar
Land use : arable land: 5.05%
permanent crops: 1.01%
other: 93.94% (2001)
Irrigated land

: NA; note - included in the total for China (2008)
Total renewable water resources
: 67 cu km (2000)
Natural hazards
: occasional typhoons
Environment - current issues
: air and water pollution from rapid urbanization
Environment - international agreements
: party to: Marine Dumping (associate member), Ship Pollution (associate member)
Geography - note : composed of more than 200 islands
 

 
 

 


 


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